Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is an abnormal condition where the arteries and veins are tangled in a particular site resulting in impaired blood flow to the brain tissues around the AVM. Arteries and veins are interconnected to each other by several capillaries. These capillaries retard the flow of blood and helps in nourishing the cells and tissues with food, oxygen and other nutrients to the surrounding tissues.
In AVM, the arteries and veins are directly connected to each other bypassing the capillaries. The junction where these abnormal connections are developed is called a shunt. The surrounding tissue does not receive nutrients and oxygen because of lack of blood supply to the capillaries and this may cause various neurological conditions such as seizures, stroke, damage to brain and spinal cord, weakness, numbness in the limbs and headaches.
There will be increase in the flow of blood in the shunt which will weaken the wall of blood vessel and may also increase the pressure in the blood resulting in aneurysm. Aneurysm is a bulge or a sac that develops on the wall of the artery.
The treatment options include anti-seizure medications, Stereotactic radiosurgery, endovascular embolisation, and surgical resection.